**UPSC/IAS/CSE-Civil Services Maths/Mathematics Optional Syllabus PAPER-2 2022-2023**

** **** **** Section-A**

** (1) Modern Algebra:**

Groups, subgroups, cyclic groups, cosets, Lagrange’s Theorem, normal subgroups, quotient groups, homomorphism of groups, basic isomorphism theorems, permutation groups, Cayley’s theorem. Rings, sub rings and ideals, homeomorphisms of rings; Integral domains, principal Ideal domains, Euclidean domains and unique factorization domains; Fields, quotient fields.

**(2) Real Analysis:**

Real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property; Sequences, limit of a sequence, Cauchy sequence, completeness of real line; Series and its convergence, absolute and conditional convergence of series of real and complex terms, rearrangement of series. Continuity and uniform continuity of functions, properties of continuous functions on compact sets. Riemann integral, improper integrals; Fundamental theorems of integral calculus. Uniform convergence, continuity, differentiability and integrability for sequences and series of functions; Partial derivatives of functions of several (two or three) variables, maxima and minima.

**(3) Complex Analysis:**

Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, power series representation of an analytic function, Taylor’s series; Singularities; Laurent’s series; Cauchy’s residue theorem; Contour integration.

** (4) Linear Programming:**

Linear programming problems, basic solution, basic feasible solution and optimal solution; Graphical method and simplex method of solutions; Duality. Transportation and assignment problems.

** ****Section-B**

**(5) Partial differential equations:**

Family of surfaces in three dimensions and formulation of partial differential equations; Solution of quasi linear partial differential equations of the first order, Cauchy’s method of characteristics; Linear partial differential equations of the second order with constant coefficients, canonical form; Equation of a vibrating string, heat equation, Laplace equation and their solutions.

**(6) Numerical Analysis & Computer Programming:**

**(i) Numerical Analysis**

Numerical methods: Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection, Regula-Falsi and Newton-Raphson methods; solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan (direct), Gauss-Seidel (iterative) methods. Newton’s (forward and backward) interpolation, Lagrange’s interpolation. Numerical integration: Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rules, Gaussian quadrature formula. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations: Euler and Runga Kutta-methods.

** ****(ii) Computer Programming:**

Binary system; Arithmetic and logical operations on numbers; Octal and Hexadecimal systems; Conversion to and from decimal systems; Algebra of binary numbers. Elements of computer systems and concept of memory; Basic logic gates and truth tables, Boolean algebra, normal forms. Representation of unsigned integers, signed integers and reals, double precision reals and long integers. Algorithms and flow charts for solving numerical analysis problems.

** (7) Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics:**

(i) **Mechanics: **Generalized coordinates; D’Alembert’s principle and Lagrange’s equations; Hamilton equations; Moment of inertia; Motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions.

**(ii) Fluid Dynamics: **Equation of continuity; Euler’s equation of motion for Inviscid flow; Stream-lines, path of a particle; Potential flow; Two-dimensional and asymmetric motion; Sources and sinks, vortex motion; Navier-Stokes Equation for a viscous fluid.